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合理纠正口语错误 提升课堂练习趣味性

本文作者: 21ST
期号:91  阅读数:9501
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  合理纠正口语错误 提升课堂练习趣味性

  

  编者按:提高学生的口语交际能力是英语课堂教学的重要任务之一,但是学生们往往不愿开口练习。一是因为害怕犯错误而不敢说,二是不知道该说什么。教师应该针对这两点对学生加以帮助。本栏目从如何以最佳的方式纠正学生的口语错误和安排有趣味性的教学环节两个方面探讨口语教学。

  Three ways to correct students’ speech

  Julian Edge

  TEACHERS constantly come across this dilemma: whether to correct the way students speak and encourage accuracy; or not correct and encourage fluency.

  In general, interrupting your students when they make mistakes risks making them nervous and hesitant speakers. So when students are involved in speaking practice, delayed correction is better.

  You should listen while the students are talking and make mental notes of the most important mistakes. Let them complete the activity. Then you draw attention to the mistake and invite the student to correct it. Most mistakes in speaking are what we call “slips”. Slips are mistakes that the student can correct if you draw attention to them.

  The techniques below may be used for both immediate and delayed correction.

  Asking for repetition without indicating the mistake

  Many teachers use a rolling movement of the hand to ask the student to repeat the sentence without indicating where the mistake occurs. In many cases students will be able to self-correct it when you have indicated there is a mistake.

  Drawing attention to mistakes and prompting self-correction

  Many teachers use their fingers to indicate the position of mistakes and prompt the student to self-correct. For example, if a student wants to say “The motorcycle was invented in 1885,” but actually says, “The motorcycle was invent in 1885.” You can do the correction in the following way.

  Step 1: Put up three fingers.

  Step 2: Touch the first finger and say IN.

  Step 3: Touch the second finger and say VENT.

  Step 4: Touch the third finger and look at the student with a questioning facial expression to encourage him/her to correct the mistake.

  Peer correction

  Sometimes the student cannot self-correct (although they should always be given the opportunity). In this case you can prompt another student to provide the correction. After doing this, return to the original student for the self-correction.

  Beware of allowing only two or three students in the class to become the ones who always provide peer correction. Correction of mistakes should be a task shared by all the students in the class.

  老师在指导学生的口语时经常遇到这样的难题:当学生在口语练习中出现错误的时候,老师是应该马上打断学生纠正错误还是鼓励他们继续说下去?

  一般来讲,如果学生的谈话被打断,他们通常会感到紧张而不敢随便开口。所以当学生讲英语时,老师应该一边听一边在脑子里记住他们说错的地方,在练习结束后引导学生注意并纠正这些错误。实际上,大多数口语中出现的错误都属于“口误”,如果引导学生注意到这些错误,他们是完全有能力自己纠正过来的。

  以下是一些纠正学生口误的技巧:

  1.老师在不指出错误的前提下让学生重复说过的句子。

  许多老师在发现学生口语错误的时候打手势让他们重复说过的句子。当学生接收到这样的信息暗示的时候,会有意识地去自我纠正错误。

  2.引导学生注意到错误并鼓励他们自己纠正错误。

  许多老师利用手指来暗示学生所说的句子中哪些地方错了。例如:学生想要表达“The motorcycle was invented in 1885”,但是实际上却说成“The motorcycle was invent in 1885”(动词时态没有用过去时),这时老师应该按照以下步骤去做:

  第一步:伸出三个手指。

  第二步:指着第一个手指说“in”。

  第三步:指着第二个手指说“vent”。

  第四步:指着第三个手指,面带疑问的表情看着学生,鼓励其自己发现并纠正错误。

  3.同学之间相互纠正错误

  有时候学生不知道该如何纠正自己的错误,这时候老师应该鼓励其他学生来指出错误,然后由犯错误的学生自己来改正。注意不要仅限定于固定的几个学生来做纠错,而要让全班同学都参与进来。

  Drama techniques to get them talking

  Clare Lavery

  DRAMA techniques, which focus on getting across meaning with body language, as well as words, are very useful for the language classroom. The following activities appeal to reluctant students.

  Words with mime and movement

  This is an activity to revise recently learnt vocabulary. You may do this in the following way:

  Step 1: Students sit or stand in a circle with you in the center.

  Step 2: Select a word from a pile of word cards.

  Step 3: Ask the first student to start the game. This student steps into the circle and either mimes the meaning of the word with body/hand movements or says the word with a voice reflecting the meaning of the word.

  For example:

  Slow = said very slowly or with a slow swaying movement of the arms.

  Frightened = a look of fear on the face or a tone of terror.

  Step 4: The first player steps back into the circle.

  Step 5: Each student in the circle must repeat the word to memorize it.

  Step 6: Continue around the circle in a clockwise fashion, giving a new word for each student to try out.

  Get message across with mime

  It can be helpful to put students in the shoes of a foreigner who has to get their meaning across with mime, gesture and sound effects. This practices communication survival techniques. You may do this in the following way.

  Step 1: Put a pack of cards at the front. Each card contains a sentence or question a foreigner needs to say.

  Step 2: Ask the first student to come to the front and pick a card. He/she must then use the sentence to try and make himself/herself understood to the rest of the class. They are not allowed to speak but may do sound effects if necessary.

  Step 3: The other students guess and say what the sentence is. You may invite suggestions from them.

  With higher levels, you can lead into a discussion on how people react to foreigners who cannot speak their language. For example, do they think volume makes a difference in understanding?

  戏剧手法注重利用肢体语言和实际语言的结合来表达说话者的意图。把这些技巧运用到课堂当中,有助于激发不愿开口说话的学生的兴趣。以下是作者建议的练习活动:

  1.利用肢体语言表达一个单词的含义

  这项活动有助于帮助学生练习最近学过的词汇。

  第一步:学生围成一圈,老师站在中间。

  第二步:从词汇卡片中挑选一个单词。

  第三步:让一名学生走到圆圈中间,利用肢体、手势或者声音模仿来表达这个单词的含义。例如:“慢的(slow)”这个单词的含义就可以通过慢速地说话或挥动手臂来表达;“受惊吓的(frightened)”则可以通过一种恐惧的表情或颤抖的声音来表达含义。

  第四步:这名学生表演完毕后回到原来的位置。

  第五步:每名学生反复朗读这个单词直到把它记住。

  第六步:让学生按照顺时针的方向依次表演,每名学生负责一个新的单词。

  2. 通过无声表演来传达信息

  让学生假扮外国人,通过动作模仿、肢体语言和声音效果来表达意图是很有效的练习方式。

  第一步:把一些卡片放在教室前面,每张卡片上都写有外国人要说的话或者要问的问题。

  第二步:请一名同学挑选一张卡片,通过表演来表达出这个卡片上句子的含义。

  第三步:让其他的同学猜想并说出这个句子。

  对于水平较高的学生,老师可以安排学生讨论人们遇到外国人语言不通时的反应。比如,大声说话就有助于沟通吗?

  True / False stories

  Richard Frost

  THIS speaking activity is effective for practicing the telling of stories and for learning fascinating things about the students in the class.

  Procedure

  Step 1: Tell the students an interesting story about yourself and describe in detail what happened.

  Step 2: At the end of the story, give them an opportunity to ask you questions about the story.

  Step 3: Ask them to decide if they think the story is true or false. You may discuss the details.

  Step 4: Let students make up their own stories. You may put the students into groups of two and tell them to prepare two stories for the class. Each student must have one story to tell; in a pair one story must be true and one must be false. The important thing is that the false stories must be realistic and the true stories must be unusual.

  Step 5: Ask each group, in turn, to come to the front of the class and tell the rest of the students their stories.

  Step 6: After each story is told, the class ask some questions about it. When all in the group have told their stories, ask the students to decide which is true and which is false.

  Step 7: When all the groups have finished their stories, conduct a feedback session and highlight the effective language that was used as well as the language that needs to be worked on.

  It can be time-consuming talking in front of a large class so it would be a good idea to match groups to tell each other their stories.

  以下讲故事的口语练习既有助于提高学生们的英语讲述能力,又有助于老师了解他们有趣的想法。

  第一步:给学生讲述一个关于你自己的故事,注意描述清楚事情的细节部分。

  第二步:讲完故事后给学生自由提问问题的机会。

  第三步:让学生推测这个故事的真实性。老师和学生可以就这个话题展开关于细节的讨论。

  第四步:让学生讲述关于自己的故事。把学生按每两人分成一组,每人准备一个故事。这两个故事中必须有一个是真的,另外一个是假的。这个游戏的关键点在于学生们要把真的故事说得像假的,而假的说得像真的。

  第五步:每组同学分别到教室前讲述自己的故事。

  第六步:每个故事讲完后,其他的同学可以就这个故事提问问题。听完两个故事之后,他们来决定故事的真实性。

  第七步:全班所有分组都讲完故事之后,老师总结学生用到过的有效语言和不足之处。

  鉴于这个活动非常耗时,老师可以安排几个组同时进行活动。

  

  
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